Sometimes romantic, sometimes sinister, Europe’s best castles evoke a palpable sense of both melancholy and wonder. Their ancient stones brim with mystery and history—but not the stodgy old history of musty textbooks.
The Best European Castles You Can Visit
Castles are the past brought to life, a visceral reminder that quests and battles and chivalry weren’t always the exclusive province of fantasy novels. Go medieval on your next trip with a visit to one of these castles where ancient history is alive and well.
Carreg Cennen Castle, Wales
Never trust any list of Europe’s best castles that doesn’t include at least one entry from Wales. Owing to its tumultuous history of war and rebellion, the Welsh countryside is home to more castles per square mile than anywhere else in the world. Our favorite is Carreg Cennen, the only ruined stronghold to make this list. Actually, we like that Carreg Cennen has been in a ruinous state since 1462. Perched on a lonely limestone hilltop in Brecon Beacons National Park and often shrouded in mist, Carreg Cennen is easily the most evocative castle in the land. And while it may not be quite as popular as the larger Caerphilly Castle, Carreg Cennen will always be first in our hearts.
Hohenwerfen Castle, Austria
Brooding high above Austria’s Salzachtal Valley amid the dramatic peaks of the Berchtesgaden Alps, this stronghold has served alternately as a home to kings, archbishops, and prisoners (it was a state prison for a period of time) for more than 900 years. Today, Hohenwerfen Castle is a popular tourist draw and the site of Austria’s foremost falconry center, where the royal hunting art is on full display with daily demonstrations.
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Predjama Castle, Slovenia
Predjama Castle is an easy sell to castle lovers. Most famous for being built into the side of a 400-foot cliff, it may also call to mind visions of Tolkien’s Helm’s Deep. But this real-world stronghold has the requisite dungeons, secret tunnels, and bloody history to make it a must-see on its own merits. Visit Predjama Castle during the annual medieval tournament, held each July, for a once-in-a-lifetime experience.
Guedelon Castle, France
Who says the age of castles is over? Take a trip back in time at Guedelon Castle in Burgundy, France, where a team of 50 craftspeople and laborers are currently using 13th-century building techniques and technology (think: horses) to construct an authentic castle from scratch, deep within a secluded forest. The project has been running since 1997 and hopes to reach completion in the 2020s.
Neuschwanstein Castle, Germany
It might be the most photographed castle in the world, but there’s still nothing quite like seeing Germany’s fairy-tale castle in person. The brainchild of “Mad King Ludwig” (or, more generously, “The Fairy-Tale King”), Neuschwanstein has influenced everything from Disney attractions (note the similarity to Disneyland’s Sleeping Beauty Castle) to books and computer games. Take a tour of the castle grounds, but leave time for an off-site walk along the myriad nearby trails. That’s where you’ll find the most stunning views for photographs.
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Eilean Donan Castle, Scotland
One of the most iconic castles in Europe, Scotland’s Eilean Donan Castle is recognized the world over from its appearances on postcards and in movies like the original Highlander (“There can be only one!”). History buffs will appreciate Eilean Donan’s rich past as a key site during the 1719 Jacobite Rising, and all will enjoy the stark beauty of its surroundings, where three great lochs meet at the foot of an impressive mountain range. Today nearly every part of the castle is accessible to the public for tours and exploration.
Hohenzollern Castle, Germany
This ancestral home to a line of German emperors would fit in with the fantastical fortresses imagined by J.R.R. Tolkien and George R.R. Martin. At 2,805 feet above sea level, Hohenzollern Castle really is a castle in the clouds. The current fortress is actually the third to be built on the site (the first was destroyed in the battle and the second fell into disrepair). Today it is a popular tourist attraction.
Hunyad Castle, Romania
The imposing Hunyad Castle, which once imprisoned Vlad the Impaler (Bram Stoker’s inspiration for Dracula), offers plenty for castle aficionados to sink their teeth into. Marked by myriad towers, multicolored roofs, and exaggerated stone carvings, this Gothic-Renaissance castle was fully and fancifully restored after decades of neglect. What we see today may or may not be authentic (some suggest that modern architects projected their own “wistful interpretations” of a Gothic castle onto the reconstruction), but either way, the end result is memorable.
Edinburgh Castle, Scotland
One of the best examples of a fully restored medieval fortress, Edinburgh Castle towers over Scotland’s capital city from atop an extinct volcano called Castle Rock. It was built in the 12th century and has passed hands between the English and the Scots numerous times over the course of its bloody history. Today, it’s open to the public year-round for tours and events.
From its origin as an unassuming hunting lodge to its height as the royal court of France under Louis XIV, the Sun King’s Chateau de Versailles is arguably the grandest castle in the world. No visit to Paris is complete without at least a day trip to see the gardens, canals, and gilded halls of Versailles.
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Editor’s note: This story was originally published in 2013. It has been updated to reflect the most current information.